ginseng > Understanding Korean ginseng
Transmission of Ginseng
|The ginseng was not on Japan from the
ancient times, and it was not transplanted from the other country.
Also, it was not used as the medicine. (A.D 414)
There are writing about ginseng from choenbowonnyun of munmucheonhwang.
From the doctor's institution, there are writing,¡¸doctors should learn
'Gapeulgyung'. 'Maekgyung', and 'Shinsooboncho'¡¹From the list of books,
¡ºShinsooboncho¡», there is ginseng as the medicine.
There are writing about ginseng on the¡ºChuloongukpoongtogi¡», which
published in 733. However, people called it ¡¸«Ë«æ«¯¡¹, and it was the
other plant, not ginseng.
In 737, people suggested to take the soup of ginseng to guys who was
ready for going to the war. Also, in 739, when Balhae's King, Mun
was the king, 30 roots of ginseng was gave as the gift from king.
After that, ginseng was imported to Japan many times as the gift or
by barter, and people started to use ginseng as the medicine. The
wild ginseng in Japan, jukjeol ginseng, whether it is used as medicine
or cultivating year is unknown.
There are few theories about the first cultivating year. Two of them
are 1607 and 1720. The amount of ginseng's cultivating of inland was
insufficient, and with trying to prevent the outflow of gold, they
tried to cultivated the ginseng in earnest. However, it was failed.
In 1728, 60 of manjoo ginseng, and Korean ginseng's seed and 8 of
wild ginseng imported to Japan. People planted those seeds, and tried
to cultivate under the sun, and it was succeeded.
The history of cultivating
|1) Early years
As the report listed, Japan's jinseng cultivating is not sure, although
there are few more theories with two og them.
From the former, there is a record, gwannangangi, that imported the
seeds from Korea and ordered to iedaljeongjong, and jwajookeuisun
to cultivate it. The record is from jwadeungsinso, in 1607. However,
the writer of a record is not found yet.
Also, there are no record that Japan got or gove the seeds of ginseng
from Korea on that time.
The record said that people cultivated ginseng, but the truth was
people imported ginseng from Korea, buried on the ground, and sell
The truth of the record of cultivating ginseng From bonchoyookbukyungjongbup,
was jwadungsinso's great-great grandfather got the Korean ginseng
and planted on the ground.
2) Mid Years
By the ordinary business, Japan imported ginseng, used it as the medicine,
and the record of it was so good. So people wanted ginseng too much
to supply it, and people thought about cultivating it. The beginning
of trying to cultivate was from mak-bu of dukcheongagang ordered to
scholars to submit the report about ginseng's cultivating. From that,
people started to cultivate it.
On December 12th, and 28th of 1727, Japanese took the seeds of ginseng
in secret, and on August 28th of 1728, as the former reported, passed
through sooyahwacheonsoo, Japanese tried the cultivating of ginseng
with 60 seeds and 8 roots. Also, Japanese ordered to hwajeonjangsoon
to write the ginseng byun and cultivated ginseng. However, the cultivating
was failed, because of the wrong climate, wrong soils, and because
of the latency of money.
3) Modern times
The ginseng's cultivating of Japan, until the 1945, was not enough
for their country, so they used ginsengs from Korea and exported to
the other countries. After 1945, daewoominbu, came to his own country
and recovered the ginseng's cultivating.
These days, the region of ginseng's cultivating gets decrease, because
of the problems of salary and using regions.
The major ginseng's cultivating region of ginseng is jangya, dogeun,
|Gumsan ginseng is unique, not like gaesung's
cultivating way, they plant the seeds closely, and let them to get
the sunshines well, and harvest them from the end of July. The Ginseng's
processing ends on the end of October.
Because of the cultivating style, people call the gumsan ginseng the
From the cultivating style, they harvest them on July, that medical
action gets the best. Because of that, gumsan ginseng has more saponin,
and the medicine substances are better.
People process it in unique shape, goksam. It is the traditional processing
way of gumsan, so it is the other characteristic of gumsan ginseng.
|People think that the beginning of medical
plant's cultivating was from the ancient era. The record was very
weak to be truth, but there were few records of it. From baekkwangi,
"Gojo gave the order to make munhasung, and conquer the sangdo
guk." After that, there was a garden of Yi In, a pharmacist,
and from jongshinjibup of dongsugyungjukjisumok, the cultivating of
medical plants was official work. However, there was no record about
ginseng's cultivating, so its authenticity is very weak.
| From Tang dynasty, the medical part
got bigger. There were pharmacy in the capital city. However, whether
there were ginseng or not on the parmacy's cultivating list was not
clear. From the books of cultivating, there was a sentence, ¡°Samasojongguninee¡±
from "Yuk kui mong¡®s" poetry. It says about ginseng, but
people think that the ginseng was from 'Goguryo' or 'SanSeoseon'g
'TaeHaeng Mountains', and buried its roots.
|Since Song dynasty, there were much
development on the medicine, so there are many books about botany.
A poet from tang dynasty, people could find out clause about ginseng,
and it must be from yo-dong area or sansusung area's ginseng.
Also, from the end of Song's poetries, there are many reports about
|From Ching's ginseng cultivation, people
could find about that from 'Cheong's'¡ºBijeonhwagyeong¡», but it is
really 'simmilar' to¡ºBonchogangmok¡»of Si-seup Lee. People could find
about ginseng from¡ºjibukudam¡»of 'Wangsajeong', and could understand
that domestic administration tried to plant the ginseng.
In the end of Ching dynasty, government forbidden people's getting
the wild ginseng, and the government theirselves also get and used
it for imperial household and national treasury.
At that time, there were people who worked in the government of Gilrimseong,
or mountain guys took the young ginseng or targeted that and took
it later, or planted the seeds and harvested it. These ginsengs are
called angsam or angjasam. This is simmilar with Korean sanyangsam,
and the one that planted on the garden was gasam.
Gillim or bong-choen's ginseng cultivating was usually cultivated
in interior of forest. People chose the region that the leaves were
collected for hundred years. Then people plowed deep, divided the
region in 30cm in height, and 120cm in area. Also, made the field
with 36~48m or 180m, and planted the seeds. After planted it, they
put the crossbars for prevent the sunshine's and the floods, and they
cultivated ginseng with using tree's shell and board.
Distribution and environment
|The ginseng which wildly distributed
are on the 30~48 north altitude, and on close to Canada, New Hampshire,
Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Telaware, New York,
Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Ohio, West Verginia, Indiana,
Illinois, Wisconsin, Kentucky, Tennessee, etc.
Also they are distributed on the southern part of America, such as
Georgia, or few parts of Alabama. Especially they are distributed
well on many states which is close to aligeny mountains. There were
the records which people who got the wild ginseng from the deep forest
from minneapolis and Minnesota.
Those wild ginseng are could be found from the river sides of forests.
From 1790 to 1800s, the wild ginseng became rare, because of the large
amount of digging. From the 20th century, the industry got the bigger
and the express way are built, so the ginseng's living region is getting
smaller and smaller.
Ginseng's discovery and digging
| It was french priest, Sartoux who expected
that there would be wild ginseng in North America. While he was in
China, the village people get and gave him 4 of wild ginseng. He knew
about the medical value of ginseng, so he kept it significantly and
sent the report about ginseng's shape and medical effects on April
12th, 1713. The report was published in 1713, from that, people expected
that the ginseng would be exist in other countries, not only in China.
After that, Laxitav, missionary who evangelized in St. Louis, had
chance to read the report, he found the first ginseng of North America
from the region close to Montreal by helping of the indians.
After 2 years later, he published the book of ginseng.
The discovery of ginseng was the same with discovery of gold mine
to US, because they could get the gold from exporting the ginseng
People could get much benefit from the business with ginseng, which
they bought from quebec in 2 franc is traded in 25 franc with gwang-dong
At that time, people exported the 500 thousand franc of ginseng to
China. After that, Compagne des Indies, which is the company of France,
tried to monopoly the ginseng's importing. Also, American people get
the ginseng from indians and exported, one of the company was the
American Fur Company.
The ginseng was called in Sand or Seng by the businessmen of ginseng,
and the people who were taking the ginseng was called in Seng diggers.
The ginseng's first export of America by theirselves to China was
1782, the price was $3 per a pound.
|The spread area of Russian ginseng is
around 'Black Dragon River' and 'YounHaeJoo', and on 40~48 north latitude.
usually grows on Mountain Plateau. The highest was about 1,000m.
Ginseng cultivating in Russia
|Before 20th Century Chinese who were
living in 'YounHaeJoo' spreaded ginseng on there workplace, but it
was not the main work but just a sub-work in Russia.
It was really hard to say that it was cultivating of ginseng, because
its seeds by ginseng was really few, and the most ginseng are the
ginsengs which planted from wild ginsengs of the deep forest.
Getting the wild ginseng and planting was a lot in 'Juguepeuseukihyeon',
and also 'Supaseuki', 'Yagoburepuseuki' and 'Originseuki'.
The first broad of ginseng's cultivating in the wide rigion was done
by 'Yangrok-trader' in the region of 'sidaeidaeemi-peninsula', and
it showed the available of industrialize.
The ginseng's cultivating work of 'Yagoburepuseuki' was continued
for 12 years, but it was destroyed by himself when the eastern part
was got into the Soviet.
In 1930, the first scientific ginseng's cultivating was done on the
forest of 'Supaseuki' protected region and 'Chosen-Song's gorge protected
The wild ginseng, which was discovered from the collaborators of science
academy of eastern part's plant department, was planted on the protected
region, which was not that big, but restricted region.
Since 1949, Academy of eastern part started the research about the
ginseng's cultivating. At first, they used the ginseng's roots, which
was on their region, after that, they used Korean ginsengs(from North
In 1952, the first ginsengs, which got from South Korea, was planted
on the 'Supaseuki' protected region.
They researched about the right time to huge planting which was by
Jay, employee of science academy of eastern part, and 'Gudonigoba'.
Also, they researched about the right region's width for giving the
good nutrition, the problems about the fertilizer for ginseng's cultivating
in the forest.