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Transmission of Ginseng
The ginseng was not on Japan from the ancient times, and it was not transplanted from the other country. Also, it was not used as the medicine. (A.D 414)
There are writing about ginseng from choenbowonnyun of munmucheonhwang. From the doctor's institution, there are writing,¡¸doctors should learn 'Gapeulgyung'. 'Maekgyung', and 'Shinsooboncho'¡¹From the list of books,
¡ºShinsooboncho¡», there is ginseng as the medicine.
There are writing about ginseng on the¡ºChuloongukpoongtogi¡», which published in 733. However, people called it ¡¸«Ë«æ«¯¡¹, and it was the other plant, not ginseng.
In 737, people suggested to take the soup of ginseng to guys who was ready for going to the war. Also, in 739, when Balhae's King, Mun was the king, 30 roots of ginseng was gave as the gift from king.
After that, ginseng was imported to Japan many times as the gift or by barter, and people started to use ginseng as the medicine. The wild ginseng in Japan, jukjeol ginseng, whether it is used as medicine or cultivating year is unknown.
There are few theories about the first cultivating year. Two of them are 1607 and 1720. The amount of ginseng's cultivating of inland was insufficient, and with trying to prevent the outflow of gold, they tried to cultivated the ginseng in earnest. However, it was failed. In 1728, 60 of manjoo ginseng, and Korean ginseng's seed and 8 of wild ginseng imported to Japan. People planted those seeds, and tried to cultivate under the sun, and it was succeeded.
The history of cultivating
1) Early years
As the report listed, Japan's jinseng cultivating is not sure, although there are few more theories with two og them.
From the former, there is a record, gwannangangi, that imported the seeds from Korea and ordered to iedaljeongjong, and jwajookeuisun to cultivate it. The record is from jwadeungsinso, in 1607. However, the writer of a record is not found yet.
Also, there are no record that Japan got or gove the seeds of ginseng from Korea on that time.
The record said that people cultivated ginseng, but the truth was people imported ginseng from Korea, buried on the ground, and sell to people.
The truth of the record of cultivating ginseng From bonchoyookbukyungjongbup, was jwadungsinso's great-great grandfather got the Korean ginseng and planted on the ground.

2) Mid Years
By the ordinary business, Japan imported ginseng, used it as the medicine, and the record of it was so good. So people wanted ginseng too much to supply it, and people thought about cultivating it. The beginning of trying to cultivate was from mak-bu of dukcheongagang ordered to scholars to submit the report about ginseng's cultivating. From that, people started to cultivate it.
On December 12th, and 28th of 1727, Japanese took the seeds of ginseng in secret, and on August 28th of 1728, as the former reported, passed through sooyahwacheonsoo, Japanese tried the cultivating of ginseng with 60 seeds and 8 roots. Also, Japanese ordered to hwajeonjangsoon to write the ginseng byun and cultivated ginseng. However, the cultivating was failed, because of the wrong climate, wrong soils, and because of the latency of money.

3) Modern times
The ginseng's cultivating of Japan, until the 1945, was not enough for their country, so they used ginsengs from Korea and exported to the other countries. After 1945, daewoominbu, came to his own country and recovered the ginseng's cultivating.
These days, the region of ginseng's cultivating gets decrease, because of the problems of salary and using regions.
The major ginseng's cultivating region of ginseng is jangya, dogeun, bokdohyun, etc.
Cultivation environment
Gumsan ginseng is unique, not like gaesung's cultivating way, they plant the seeds closely, and let them to get the sunshines well, and harvest them from the end of July. The Ginseng's processing ends on the end of October.
Because of the cultivating style, people call the gumsan ginseng the summer ginseng.
From the cultivating style, they harvest them on July, that medical action gets the best. Because of that, gumsan ginseng has more saponin, and the medicine substances are better.
People process it in unique shape, goksam. It is the traditional processing way of gumsan, so it is the other characteristic of gumsan ginseng.
Before Sui
People think that the beginning of medical plant's cultivating was from the ancient era. The record was very weak to be truth, but there were few records of it. From baekkwangi, "Gojo gave the order to make munhasung, and conquer the sangdo guk." After that, there was a garden of Yi In, a pharmacist, and from jongshinjibup of dongsugyungjukjisumok, the cultivating of medical plants was official work. However, there was no record about ginseng's cultivating, so its authenticity is very weak.
From Tang dynasty, the medical part got bigger. There were pharmacy in the capital city. However, whether there were ginseng or not on the parmacy's cultivating list was not clear. From the books of cultivating, there was a sentence, ¡°Samasojongguninee¡± from "Yuk kui mong¡®s" poetry. It says about ginseng, but people think that the ginseng was from 'Goguryo' or 'SanSeoseon'g 'TaeHaeng Mountains', and buried its roots.
Since Song dynasty, there were much development on the medicine, so there are many books about botany.
A poet from tang dynasty, people could find out clause about ginseng, and it must be from yo-dong area or sansusung area's ginseng.
Also, from the end of Song's poetries, there are many reports about ginseng's cultivation.
From Ching's ginseng cultivation, people could find about that from 'Cheong's'¡ºBijeonhwagyeong¡», but it is really 'simmilar' to¡ºBonchogangmok¡»of Si-seup Lee. People could find about ginseng from¡ºjibukudam¡»of 'Wangsajeong', and could understand that domestic administration tried to plant the ginseng.
In the end of Ching dynasty, government forbidden people's getting the wild ginseng, and the government theirselves also get and used it for imperial household and national treasury.
At that time, there were people who worked in the government of Gilrimseong, or mountain guys took the young ginseng or targeted that and took it later, or planted the seeds and harvested it. These ginsengs are called angsam or angjasam. This is simmilar with Korean sanyangsam, and the one that planted on the garden was gasam.
Gillim or bong-choen's ginseng cultivating was usually cultivated in interior of forest. People chose the region that the leaves were collected for hundred years. Then people plowed deep, divided the region in 30cm in height, and 120cm in area. Also, made the field with 36~48m or 180m, and planted the seeds. After planted it, they put the crossbars for prevent the sunshine's and the floods, and they cultivated ginseng with using tree's shell and board.
Distribution and environment
The ginseng which wildly distributed are on the 30~48 north altitude, and on close to Canada, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Telaware, New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Ohio, West Verginia, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Kentucky, Tennessee, etc.
Also they are distributed on the southern part of America, such as Georgia, or few parts of Alabama. Especially they are distributed well on many states which is close to aligeny mountains. There were the records which people who got the wild ginseng from the deep forest from minneapolis and Minnesota.
Those wild ginseng are could be found from the river sides of forests. From 1790 to 1800s, the wild ginseng became rare, because of the large amount of digging. From the 20th century, the industry got the bigger and the express way are built, so the ginseng's living region is getting smaller and smaller.
Ginseng's discovery and digging
It was french priest, Sartoux who expected that there would be wild ginseng in North America. While he was in China, the village people get and gave him 4 of wild ginseng. He knew about the medical value of ginseng, so he kept it significantly and sent the report about ginseng's shape and medical effects on April 12th, 1713. The report was published in 1713, from that, people expected that the ginseng would be exist in other countries, not only in China.
After that, Laxitav, missionary who evangelized in St. Louis, had chance to read the report, he found the first ginseng of North America from the region close to Montreal by helping of the indians.
After 2 years later, he published the book of ginseng.
The discovery of ginseng was the same with discovery of gold mine to US, because they could get the gold from exporting the ginseng to China.
People could get much benefit from the business with ginseng, which they bought from quebec in 2 franc is traded in 25 franc with gwang-dong region.
At that time, people exported the 500 thousand franc of ginseng to China. After that, Compagne des Indies, which is the company of France, tried to monopoly the ginseng's importing. Also, American people get the ginseng from indians and exported, one of the company was the American Fur Company.
The ginseng was called in Sand or Seng by the businessmen of ginseng, and the people who were taking the ginseng was called in Seng diggers.
The ginseng's first export of America by theirselves to China was 1782, the price was $3 per a pound.
Natural distribution
The spread area of Russian ginseng is around 'Black Dragon River' and 'YounHaeJoo', and on 40~48 north latitude. usually grows on Mountain Plateau. The highest was about 1,000m.
Ginseng cultivating in Russia
Before 20th Century Chinese who were living in 'YounHaeJoo' spreaded ginseng on there workplace, but it was not the main work but just a sub-work in Russia.
It was really hard to say that it was cultivating of ginseng, because its seeds by ginseng was really few, and the most ginseng are the ginsengs which planted from wild ginsengs of the deep forest.
Getting the wild ginseng and planting was a lot in 'Juguepeuseukihyeon', and also 'Supaseuki', 'Yagoburepuseuki' and 'Originseuki'.

The first broad of ginseng's cultivating in the wide rigion was done by 'Yangrok-trader' in the region of 'sidaeidaeemi-peninsula', and it showed the available of industrialize.
The ginseng's cultivating work of 'Yagoburepuseuki' was continued for 12 years, but it was destroyed by himself when the eastern part was got into the Soviet.

In 1930, the first scientific ginseng's cultivating was done on the forest of 'Supaseuki' protected region and 'Chosen-Song's gorge protected region¡°
The wild ginseng, which was discovered from the collaborators of science academy of eastern part's plant department, was planted on the protected region, which was not that big, but restricted region.

Since 1949, Academy of eastern part started the research about the ginseng's cultivating. At first, they used the ginseng's roots, which was on their region, after that, they used Korean ginsengs(from North Korea).

In 1952, the first ginsengs, which got from South Korea, was planted on the 'Supaseuki' protected region.

They researched about the right time to huge planting which was by Jay, employee of science academy of eastern part, and 'Gudonigoba'. Also, they researched about the right region's width for giving the good nutrition, the problems about the fertilizer for ginseng's cultivating in the forest.
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